Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Thursday, November 8, 2018

Kasman Singodimejo: Santri Nasionalis Berkemajuan

Kasman Singodimejo: Santri Nasionalis Berkemajuan




Dār al-‘Ahd wa al-Shahādah: Muhammadiyah’s Contemporary Ijtihād of Siyar and Pancasila

Bachtiar, Hasnan. 2018. Dār al-‘Ahd wa al-Shahādah: Muhammadiyah’s Contemporary Ijtihād of Siyar and Pancasila. MA Thesis, College of Arts and Social Sciences, The Australian National University.

Abstract

This thesis examines the concept of Siyar that has been developed by Muhammadiyah, especially in the context of nation-state, globalisation, and the post-9/11 and post- reformation era of Indonesia. In 2015, Muhammadiyah proclaimed the notion of Negara Pancasila sebagai Dār al-‘Ahd wa al-Shahādah, which means the state of Pancasila as the state of consensus and witness, as a representation of the Siyar. This thesis fills three gaps of study: first, Siyar, which has been developed in the Arab- Islamic traditions, has not been studied in the context of Southeast Asia, and especially Indonesia, a non-Arab country with the largest Muslim population; second, academic works on the specific topic of Muhammadiyah produced in Western universities have not discussed the Muhammadiyah’s view of Siyar; and third, the studies that have focused on Siyar have not yet dealt with discourse on contemporary Indonesian politics and especially Muhammadiyah’s place in it.

This thesis combines library research, and social and historical contextualisation. This combination relies on primary sources consisting of official documents of Muhammadiyah, academic and intellectual works of its elites and research publications, and secondary sources that consist of scholarly works on the specific issue of the Muhammadiyah conceptualisation under study. This analysis is supported by interviews with key persons in Muhammadiyah elites who have contributed to the development of the notion of Negara Pancasila sebagai Dār al-‘Ahd wa al-Shahādah.

The thesis finds that Muhammadiyah conceptualises the notion of Negara Pancasila sebagai Dār al-‘Ahd wa al-Shahādah as an intellectual reconciliation between the state ideology of Pancasila and the doctrine of Siyar. This notion is based on its fundamental basis of thought called Islam Berkemajuan (progressive Islam), whereby Islam should be viewed progressively as a problem-solving religion. This effort, in Muhammadiyah’s perspective, is ijtihād which primarily aims to solve the problem of the significant spread of conservative and radical Islamism. In its view, this problem can potentially lead to national disintegration since the Islamists have questioned the status of Indonesia as a state (because it is not dar al-Islam or an Islamic state) and its political system (it is not a Sharī‘ah system). In this context, Muhammadiyah argues that Indonesia is the state based on Pancasila (Negara Pancasila), and since Pancasila was conceptualised through the national consensus by its founding fathers, Indonesia should be understood as the state of consensus (dār al-‘ahd) that is, neither the Islamic state nor the state of war. 

Through this argument, Muhammadiyah emphasises that it supports a moderate Islamic concept of democracy. Accordingly, it adds the concept of dār al-shahādah (the state of witness) which suggests that all Indonesians should become witnesses to the development of Indonesian civilisation. Its approach of ijtihād – ‘theologising democracy’ – proposes developing democracy as a paradigm built on a theological interpretation of Islam that emphasises the importance of values such as shūra (people’s sovereignty or consultation) and adālah (justice), among others. It is, in this way, viewed as having potential for the future development of interreligious relationships and as a model for the dynamisationof Islamic law. 

Thursday, May 17, 2018

Pluralism, Liberalism and Islamism: Religious Outlook of Muhammadiyah

Studia Islamika 2018 (forthcoming)


Ahmad Najib Burhani
ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute; LIPI – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta

Abstract
Muhammadiyah has been perceived as an example of a success blend of Islam and modernity. By adopting modern ethics of discipline, equality, and hardworking, this organization has become a rich and independent movement. Quantitatively, the number of Muhammadiyah’s educational and health institutions is only surpassed by the ones owned by Indonesian government. It has 177 colleges and universities; thousands of higher, middle, and elementary schools; and hundreds of hospitals and other health institutions. Social, educational, and economic success of certain organization, however, does not necessarily indicate that it also embraces pluralistic value and religious tolerance. This paper, therefore, intends to describe Muhammadiyah’s position in the context of pluralism, liberalism, and Islamism. This paper argues that Muhammadiyah is progressive in the context of social services, but exclusive in the context of theology. It is its concern on social services that has been able to neutralize Muhammadiyah from Islamist inclination and fundamentalist tendency.

Keywords: Puritanism, liberalism, Islamism, Muhammadiyah, pragmatism, religious exclusivism.

Abstrak
Muhammadiyah kerap dipandang sebagai contoh sukses dari perpaduan antara Islam dan kemodernan. Dengan mengadopsi semangat disiplin, kesejajaran, dan kerja keras, Muhammadiyah telah menjadi organisasi yang kaya dan mandiri. Secara kuantitatif, institusi pendidikan dan kesehatan yang dimiliki oleh Muhammadiyah hanya diungguli jumlahnya oleh institusi yang dimiliki oleh pemerintah Indonesia. Muhammadiyah memiliki 177 perguruan tinggi; ribuan sekolah tingkat atas, tingkat menengah, dan tingkat dasar; serta ratusan rumah sakit dan balai kesehatan. Namun demikian, kesuksesan dalam bidang pendidikan, kesehatan dan ekonomi tentu saja tak mengindikasikan bahwa bahwa organisasi itu juga memegang nilai pluralisme dan toleransi keagamaan. Karena itu, artikel ini ingin mendeskripsikan posisi Muhammadiyah dalam kaitannya dengan pluralisme, liberalisme, dan Islamisme. Artikel ini berargumen bahwa Muhammadiyah merupakan organisasi yang progresif dalam kaitannya dengan pelayanan sosial, namun eksklusif dalam hal teologi. Kesibukan Muhammadiyah dalam memberikan pelayanan sosial menjadi faktor yang berhasil menetralisir organisasi ini dari keterjebakan dalam Islamisme dan fundamentalisme.

Kata Kunci: Puritanisme, liberalism, Islamisme, Muhammadiyah, pragmatisme, keberagamaan, eksklusivisme.


 

Sunday, March 25, 2018

Muhammadiyah & Islamic Development in Indonesia

“Muhammadiyah & Islamic Development in Indonesia”, Jaringan Nusantara Regional Conference on “Islam & Development: Towards Democracy & Social Justice”, organised by IRF; NUS; IKMAS-UKM; & CRCS UGM, 23-25 March 2018, Palm Garden Resort, Putrajaya, Malaysia.



Muhammadiyah has been perceived as an example of a success blend of Islam and modernity in Indonesia. By adopting modern ethics of discipline, equality, and hardworking, this organization has become a rich and independent Islamic movement. Quantitatively, the number of Muhammadiyah’s educational and health institutions is only surpassed by the ones owned by Indonesian government. It has 177 colleges and university; thousands of higher, middle, and elementary schools; and hundreds of hospitals and other health institutions. Social, educational, and economic success of certain organization, however, does not necessarily indicate that it also embraces democratic value and religious tolerance. In the recent political dynamics, for instance, some members of Muhammadiyah have inclined to support Islamist groups or defended Islamist activists. This can be seen from their participation in the Aksi Bela Islam (Defending Islam Action), their defense of and protection for Ustadz Bachtiar Nasir, and their opposition to the ruling of the Constitutional Court on Penghayat Kepercayaan (Believers of Faith).

This paper, therefore, intends to explain Muhammadiyah’s position in the context of development, democracy, and religious tolerance in Indonesia. This paper, firstly, overviews the historically undisputed concern of Muhammadiyah on social services and then, secondly, it moves to discern its cultural transformation since the Congress in Aceh 1995, and based on that, thirdly, it analyses its responses on religious issues that occurred in 2017: The banning of the Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), the recurrent controversy on PKI (Indonesian Communist Party), and the ruling of the Constitutional Court on Penghayat Kepercayaan.

This paper argues that Muhammadiyah’s social position has been consistently guided by its long-held theology of Al-Ma’un (kindness) which has inspired its tremendous social and economic achievements. Muhammadiyah’s stand on religious issues, however, was often steered by Islamist imagery of the domination of Islam in Indonesia which has certain impacts on it position on democracy and tolerance towards religious minorities. It is the hegemony of the theology of Al-Ma’un that has been able to neutralize Muhammadiyah from Islamist inclination and fundamentalist tendency. It brings the members of Muhammadiyah to be more realistic in seeing the world and distancing themselves from utopic vision of caliphate or the dream of sharia as the Messiah that will solve every problem or the temptation to create an Islamic state.





Link: https://www.facebook.com/libertv.my/videos/1890325501042575/ or https://youtu.be/UPh_nPDW8lo